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Difficult words are one big obstacle when dealing with the English section. Be it Reading Comprehension passages, synonyms-antonyms, fill in the blanks or even para jumbles, if there are difficult words you don’t understand, you ought to miss out on precious marks. It is for this reason that we had started publishing articles on the important words, and meanings of difficult words on a daily basis.

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Difficult Words/ PhrasesContextual Meaning
supplementadd an extra amount to
extensivecovering a large area
procurementthe action of obtaining something
languishsuffer from being forced to remain in an unpleasant place or situation
bottom of the economic pyramidthe poorest two-thirds of the economic human pyramid; people living in abject poverty
palliativesomething that makes a problem seem less serious but does not solve the problem or make it disappear
toe the lineaccept the authority, policies, or principles of a particular group, especially unwillingly
rendermake
vulnerabilitythe state of being exposed to the possibility of being harmed
morbiditythe condition of being diseased

For farms and farmers: on launching of Rajiv Gandhi Kisan Nyay Yojana

Income support serves a purpose, but the farm sector needs a lot more

The Rajiv Gandhi Kisan Nyay Yojana launched by Chhattisgarh last week aims to supplement (add an extra amount to) the income of the State’s 18 lakh rice, maize and sugarcane farmers by ₹10,000 to ₹13,000 per acre, through direct cash transfers. Besides the Centre’s PM-KISAN scheme that provides ₹6,000 to farm families owning less than five acres of land, Telangana, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh have similar cash transfer programmes for farmers. For balancing the interests of the consumer and the farmer, India has an extensive (covering a large area) Minimum Support Price (MSP) regime which works in combination with the PDS. But the efficiency of neither MSP procurements (the action of obtaining something) nor the PDS is uniform across the country. The Centre says it fixes MSPs at 1.5 times the cost of production for farmers, but this calculation is not free of controversy. Last year, several States including Chhattisgarh and BJP-ruled U.P. and Haryana questioned the Centre’s MSP calculations. Though food is a universal necessity, those who produce it languish (suffer from being forced to remain in an unpleasant place or situation) at the bottom of the economic pyramid (the poorest two-thirds of the economic human pyramid; people living in abject poverty).

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These income support schemes target land owners, and bypass tenants and labourers. In Chhattisgarh, there is preliminary evidence that tenants managed better rates from owners last year after the government gave incentives over and above MSPs to farmers. The State is now designing a cash transfer scheme for landless labourers, according to Chief Minister Bhupesh Baghel. But these interventions are only palliative (something that makes a problem seem less serious but does not solve the problem or make it disappear) and cannot address the underlying problem, which is the non-remunerative nature of farming. A more market-driven approach has often been proposed as the solution, and the agriculture-related components in the Centre’s response to the economic crisis caused by the pandemic appear to toe that line (accept the authority, policies, or principles of a particular group, especially unwillingly). However, many previous arguments about the agriculture economy have been rendered (made) questionable by the pandemic. The food supply chain crisis in the U.S. is instructive. Considered supremely efficient, it ended up with wasted produce and unmet demand as the pandemic erupted. India’s agricultural management must take into account such fresh learning from the pandemic, and vulnerabilities (the state of being exposed to the possibility of being harmed) arising out of supply chain-dependent food security. The list of pre-existing morbidities (the condition of being diseased) in the agriculture sector is also long, including messy land records, unscientific and unsustainable crop patterns, market linkages that make the farmers vulnerable to exploitation by officials and middlemen, inadequate irrigation, adoption of technology, conflict with wildlife, and changing weather and climate patterns. For now, the Centre must announce the MSPs for the current season at the earliest — late announcements have added to the uncertainties for the farmers in recent years. The creation of a buoyant agriculture sector will take much more, and those efforts must be made on a war-footing.

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Hope you got some new words to learn. Are you liking this series of Editorials’ Difficult Words? Do let us know your thoughts in the comments section below. . Have a look at the previously published similar articles and let us know in the comment below if you have any suggestion for us. Also, download Free PDF of all the Hindu Editorials word-meanings published in the months of March & April here.

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