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IBPS PO 2020 Prelims is scheduled to take place on October 3, 2020, which is hardly 15 days from now. If you are serious about clearing this exam you should not waste any further time and get started with your preparation & revision. When it comes to the English language section, vocabulary plays a very important role in answering the questions. And no matter how good your word power is, there is always a chance of improvement. Therefore, we have come up with a series of articles where we tell you the contextual meanings of difficult words used in The Hindu Editorial.

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Start your preparation of the English language section by reading these articles on a daily basis. You can also download PDFs of these word-meanings lists which will help you in preparation & revision. The English section will have questions on the below topics:

  • Reading Comprehension
  • Cloze Test
  • Para jumbles
  • Miscellaneous
  • Fill in the blanks
  • Multiple Meaning/Error Spotting
  • Paragraph Completion

In all of these topics, you can only proceed with answering the questions if you understand the context. And to understand the given text, you need to know the meanings of difficult words used there. This is where reading our editorial analysis on a daily basis will help you.

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Let’s have a look at today’s editorial which discusses the COVID-19 vaccine development.

Difficult Word/PhraseContextual Meaning
Come throughsucceed in surviving or dealing with (an illness or ordeal
gestationthe development of something over a period of time
midwifea person or thing that produces or aids in producing something new or different
efficacious(of something inanimate or abstract) successful in producing a desired or intended result
adenovirusa group of common viruses that infect the lining of your eyes, airways and lungs, intestines, urinary tract, and nervous system
immenseextremely large or great, especially in scale or degree
incumbentnecessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility
scrupulouslyin a very careful and thorough way
minusculeextremely small
indigenouslyOriginating, growing, or produced in a certain place or region

Need for caution: On Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine

India needs more than one vaccine, but all must come through (succeed in surviving or dealing with (an illness or ordeal) their long gestation (the development of something over a period of time)

Russia’s candidate vaccine for COVID-19 appears to have found a midwife (a person or thing that produces or aids in producing something new or different) in India. The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), which is piloting the Sputnik V vaccine, has announced a partnership with the Hyderabad-based Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories to conduct a Phase-3 trial, or large multi-location human trials here. Were the candidate vaccine, developed by Russia’s Gamaleya, to prove safe and efficacious ((of something inanimate or abstract) successful in producing a desired or intended result), the RDIF would supply 100 million doses through its partnership with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories. However, there is no agreement to manufacture the vaccine here unlike the deal between the Pune-based Serum Institute of India and the United Kingdom-based AstraZeneca, for the Oxford University-developed ChAdOx1 vaccine. Sputnik V is being developed as a two-dose vaccine on a human adenovirus (a group of common viruses that infect the lining of your eyes, airways and lungs, intestines, urinary tract, and nervous system) vaccine platform. Several vaccines that are in development are also being deployed on similar platforms, and the evidence so far is that none of these has been commercially approved for use in humans though there is an experimental vaccine for Ebola. Results of the Phase-1 and Phase-2 trials of the vaccine, published in The Lancet, suggest that the evidence so far is that it has proven safe and efficacious enough to progress to the next stage of trials. Controversially, Sputnik V has been granted a pre-approval by Russia’s regulators even before Phase-3 trials have been completed.

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There is immense (extremely large or great, especially in scale or degree) political pressure globally on regulatory agencies to get a vaccine out at the earliest. Thus, it is incumbent (necessary for (someone) as a duty or responsibility) on a company conducting such trials to be particularly vigilant that all good practices and necessary protocols are scrupulously (in a very careful and thorough way) followed. It is well acknowledged that two-thirds of the most common vaccines produced globally are made in India. The Serum Institute has committed to producing 100 million doses of its vaccine for India and other ‘Low and Middle Income Countries’ at less than $3 per dose. Reportedly, half of these are for India. All in all, there seems to be a guarantee for only about 150 million doses for India, which given the country’s population is minuscule (extremely small). All of this of course does not account for the vaccines that are being indigenously (Originating, growing, or produced in a certain place or region) developed in India: Covaxin, by Bharat Biotech, based on a strain sourced from the Indian Council of Medical Research, and ZyCov-D, the plasmid DNA-vaccine being developed by Zydus Cadilla. In Phase-2 trials now, both are being tested for their ability to produce a satisfactory immune response. India has the capabilities for vaccine manufacture, cold chain storage and distribution to ensure access to citizens — and the world — in reasonable time, but it must not forget that vaccines must go through their inevitably long gestation to ensure that only those that are safe and efficacious make their way to the market.

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We hope you have got some new words to learn and augment your vocabulary. Do let us know in the comments section below. Improve your word power further by referring to such previously published lists. Also, download the list of word-meaning of The Hindu Editorial Vocabulary Free PDFs of March, April, May, June, July & August 2020 and keep revising these words on a regular basis.

 

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