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Syllogism is considered one of the confusing topics in Reasoning. The questions along with the options look simple enough to lure candidates to answer them. But if the concepts are not clear, these questions can attract negative marking. You need to be cautious enough to answer these questions. When it comes to Syllogism there are various competitive exams which include this topic in their syllabus such as IBPS PO, Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS RRB etc. You can expect some questions on this topic in SBI Clerk 2020 Mains as well as in IBPS RRB Clerk Prelims 2020 exams a majority of which is easy, scoring and takes less time. Syllogism is all about concluding one or more statement(s) with the help of previous statements. Bank exams usually include Syllogism as one of the important topics in the reasoning section and thus needs lot of practice. Practicing reasoning sectional tests that we provide in our Lockdown Warm Up tests will surely help you gain more insights regarding this topic and will also help you get familiar with different types of questions asked from the concept of syllogism. In this article we are guiding aspirants regarding the concept and few practice questions of syllogism for both SBI Clerk Mains 2020 and IBPS RRB Clerk Prelims 2020 exams.

As far as the exam dates of SBI Clerk mains 2020 hasn’t been announced yet. The SBI Clerk Prelims 2020 exam got successfully over, however the SBI Clerk mains exam got postponed due to COVID-19 pandemic. The SBI Clerk mains 2020 exam dates are expected to be out anytime soon now. As far as RRB Office Assistant 2020 exam dates are concerned, the exam dates are pretty clear as of now and they are being released long time back in the IBPS 2020 calendar. Before moving ahead with the practice questions, let’s first take a glance at some Syllogism tips and tricks.

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Syllogism Tips & Tricks

Aspirants may follow these tips and tricks which may help them to master the syllogs questions and will help them to solve these questions easily without any hassle.

  • Generally words like a few, atleast and all etc form the basis to solve such questions, thus paying attention to these words is important while solving syllogism questions.
  • Syllogism questions can be best solved with the help of Venn diagrams. This basically makes it more clear and simplified which further helps to solve the question easily.
  • The data which is mentioned in the question is to be followed only. While solving such type of questions candidates must not assume anything and should only follow what has been given.
  • Try and make out if there is any familiar concept.
  • Also, try to attempt the questions in a sequential manner.

Let’s try to understand the different concepts of Syllogism with the help of the Venn Diagram. Please note that we have exhausted all the possibilities where only one statement is there (for eg. Some P are Q). But in multiple statements (for eg. 2. Some P are Q and some Q are R), there are many other options which we’ll not be able to cover because of space constraints.

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1. Some P are Q

This is one of the most generalized statement. It says that some P are Q but doesn’t really tell us how much of P (may be the complete Q is P) is Q. You need to think about all the probabilities when you see this statement.

Conclusions:

  1. Some P are Q
  2. Some Q are P

2. Some P are Q and some Q are R

Conclusions:

  1. Some P are Q
  2. Some Q are P
  3. Some Q are R
  4. Some R are Q

Since there isn’t any connection mentioned between P and R so it’s not possible to conclude anything about them. But between Some “P are R” and “None of P is R”, we know that either of these conclusions has to be true. Either P and R will have a connection or it won’t have a connection.

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3. All P are Q

Conclusions:

  1. All P are Q
  2. Some P are Q
  3. Some Q are P

4. All P are Q and all Q are R

Conclusions:

  1. All P are Q
  2. All Q are R
  3. All P are R
  4. Some P are Q
  5. Some Q are P
  6. Some Q are R
  7. Some R are Q
  8. Some P are R
  9. Some R are P

5. Some P are Q. All Q are R

Conclusions:

  1. Some P are Q
  2. Some Q are P
  3. All Q are R
  4. Some Q are R
  5. Some R are Q
  6. Some P are R
  7. Some R are P

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6. All P are Q, Some Q are R

Conclusions:

  1. All P are Q
  2. Some P are Q
  3. Some Q are P
  4. Some Q are R
  5. Some R are Q

Since there isn’t any connection mentioned between P and R so it’s not possible to conclude anything about them. But between Some “P are R” and “None of P is R”, we know that either of these conclusions has to be true. Either P and R will have a connection or it won’t have a connection.

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7. All Q are P, All R are P

Conclusions:

  • All Q are P
  • Some Q are P
  • Some P are Q
  • All R are P
  • Some R are P
  • Some P are R

Since there isn’t any connection mentioned between Q and R so it’s not possible to conclude anything about them. But between “Some Q are R” and “None of Q is R”, we know that either of these conclusions has to be true. Either Q and R will have a connection or it won’t have a connection.

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8. No P is Q

Conclusions:

  • No P is Q
  • No Q is P
  • Some P is not Q
  • Some Q is not P

9. All P are Q, No Q is R

Conclusions:

  • All P are Q
  • Some P are Q
  • Some Q are P
  • No R is Q
  • No Q is R
  • Some R is not Q
  • Some Q is not R
  • No R is P
  • No P is R
  • Some R is not P
  • Some P is not R

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10. All P are Q, No P is R

Conclusions:

  • All P are Q
  • Some P are Q
  • Some Q are P
  • No P is R
  • No R is P
  • Some P is not R
  • Some R is not P
  • Some Q is not R

11. Some P are Q, No Q is R

Conclusions:

  • Some P are Q
  • Some Q are P
  • No Q is R
  • No R is Q
  • Some R is not Q
  • Some Q is not R
  • Some P is not R

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12. Some P are Q, No P is R

Conclusions:

  • Some P are Q
  • Some Q are P
  • No P is R
  • No R is P
  • Some P is not R
  • Some R is not P
  • Some Q is not R

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Scenarios of “Only” and “Only Few”

The concept of ‘Only Few‘ and ‘Only a Few‘ are the same.

Statements:

Only few A are B

Some B are C

Conclusions:

I. All A being B is a possibility: Doesn’t Follow

Or

As only few A are B, all A cannot be B.

II. No A being B is a possibility: Doesn’t Follow

Or

Some A has to be B.

III. All B being A is a possibility: Follows

Or

As there are two possibilities, all B may be A.

IV. Some A are not B: Follows

Or

As only few A are B, so some A are definitely not B.

V. Some A not being B is a possibility: Doesn’t Follow

Or

Only few A are B, it means that some A are definitely not B and it is not a possibility, it is definitely true.

VI. Some B are not A: Doesn’t Follow

Or

In 1st possibility, all B are A while in 2nd possibility, some B are not A.

VII. Some B not being A is a possibility: Follows

Or

In 1st possibility, all B are A while in 2nd possibility, some B are not A.

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VIII. Some A are not C: Doesn’t Follow

Or

All A are C is 1st possibility. So, it doesn’t follow.

Statements:

Only C are T (It means that all T are C and no other element is T, and there will be no intersection)

Some C are B

Conclusions:

I. Some B can be T: Doesn’t Follow

No B is T.


II. All B can be C: Follows

As some C are B, all B can be C.


III. All C can be B: Doesn’t Follow

As T cannot be B, so all C cannot be B


IV. Some T not being C is a possibility: Doesn’t Follow and is false

All T are C, so some T not being C is not at all possible.


V. No T is B: Follows

Only C are T, so T is not B.

Usage of ‘Possibility’ and ‘Can’

Sometimes, questions have the word possibility and can. Whenever you face this kind of question, see if there is any statement which is outrightly negating it. If no negation is there, the possibility is definitely there. You can also remember the below rules:

Statement: All P are Q

Conclusion:

  • All Q being P is a possibility
  • Some Q is not P is a possibility

Statement: Some P are Q

Conclusion:

  • All Q being P is a possibility
  • All P being Q is a possibility
  • Some P is not Q is a possibility
  • Some Q is not P is a possibility

Statement: Some P is not Q

Conclusion:

  • All Q being P is a possibility
  • No P is Q is a possibility
  • No Q is P is a possibility
  • Some Q is not P is a possibility
  • Some P are Q is a possibility
  • Some Q are P is a possibility

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Final Word:

Syllogism is a simple concept if you remember the above rules and practice different kinds of questions. Sometimes the questions will try to confuse you by putting such names which are interrelated. For eg. Some pages are papers. No paper is book. You shouldn’t assume that there is some existing relationship between pages, papers, and books and start solving the question with a clean slate. If enough practice via mock tests is done, it’s all a matter of drawing diagrams quickly and answering questions correctly.

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Sample Questions for SBI Clerk 2020 Mains (With Explanatory Answers)

Question 6: In the question below there are four statements followed by three conclusions I, II and III. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

No mobiles are laptops.

Only few laptops are computers.

Few computers are keyboards.

All keyboards are phones.

Conclusions:

I. Some laptops are not keyboards.

II. Each computers may be mobiles

III. Mostly phones are computers

a. Both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

b. Only conclusion III follows

c. Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

d. Only conclusion II follows

e. None of the above

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Solution:

Following figure can be formed:

Or

Question 7: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Only few rackets are handles.

At least some hats are handles.

No hat is beaker.

Conclusions:

I: All handles being beaker is not a possibility.

II: Mostly hats are rackets.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusion I and II follows

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Solution:

The figure deduced from the statements,

Or

Question 8: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Only maps are roads.

Some maps are tracks.

No track is route.

Conclusions:

I: Some roads are routes.

II: Some maps are routes.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusion I and II follows

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Solution:

The figure deduced from the statements,

Or

Only maps are roads means nothing can be part of roads except maps.

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Question 9: In the question below there are four statements followed by three conclusions I, II and III. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

99% states are countries

No countries are continents

Every continents is islands

Mostly islands are towns

Conclusions:

I. Few countries being islands is a possibility.

II. No towns are continents

III. Mostly states are towns

a. Both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

b. Only conclusion III follows

c. Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

d. Only conclusion I follows

e. None of the above

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Solution:

Following figure can be formed:

Or

Question 10: In the question below there are four statements followed by three conclusions I, II and III. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

12.86% ponds are rivers.

98% rivers are oceans.

Every oceans is lakes.

No lakes are waters.

Conclusions:

I. Few ponds being lakes is a possibility.

II. No oceans are waters.

III. Mostly waters are rivers.

a. Both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

b. Only conclusion III follows

c. Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

d. Only conclusion I follows

e. None of the above

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Solution:

Following figure can be formed:

Or

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Sample Questions for IBPS RRB Clerk 2020 Prelims (With Explanatory Answers)

Question 1: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Only few books are papers.

No paper is novel.

Some novels are copies.

Conclusions:

I: Some papers are copies.

II: All copies are papers.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusion I and II follows

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Question 2: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Only days are months.

No day is year.

Some years are decades.

Conclusions:

I: No decade is day.

II: Some months are decades.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusions I and II follow

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

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Question 3: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Only few bats are balls.

Few balls are stumps.

No stump is pitch.

Conclusions:

I: Some balls are not pitches.

II: All bats are balls.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusions I and II follow

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

Question 4: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

All rum is whisky.

No whisky is beer.

Only beer is vodka.

Conclusions:

I: No rum is beer.

II: Some vodka may be whisky.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusion I and II follows

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

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Question 5: In the question below there are three statements followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

25.5% of stones are rocks.

None rock is sand.

Only sands are bricks.

Conclusions:

I. No rock is brick.

II. Some stones are sands.

a. Both conclusion I and conclusion III follow.

b. Only conclusion I follows

c. Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

d. Only conclusion II follows

e. None of the above

Answer: For Answers, Download the Free Syllogism PDF

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Sample Questions for SBI PO 2020 Prelims (With Explanatory Answers)

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Question 1: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Only a few rides are trips.

No trip is mountain.

All mountains are trees.

Conclusions:

I: Some trees are not trips.

II: All rides being trips is not a possibility.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusions I and II follow

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: d

Solution:

The figure deduced from the statements,

Or

As, the part covering both mountains and trees will never be part of trips. So, statement I must be true.

Also, all trips can be rides as shown in 2nd figure and vice versa is not possible. So, statement II cannot be true.

Therefore, both conclusions I and II follow.

Hence, option d.

Question 2: In the question below there are three statements followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the three statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

Mostly pets are cats

Only cats are dogs

No cats are rabbits

Conclusions:

I. Some pets are rabbits.

II. All pets being rabbits is not a possibility.

a. Both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

b. Only conclusion I follows

c. Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

d. Only conclusion II follows

e. None of the above

Answer: d

Solution:

Following figure can be formed:

Or

As, rabbits can’t be part of cats and some pets are cats. Therefore all pets cannot be rabbits.

From the figure, only conclusion II follows.

Hence, option d.

Question 3: In the question below there are three statements followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the three statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

At least some petals are leaves.

All leaves are plants

No plant is seed

Conclusions:

I. All leaves may be seeds

II. Some petals are plants

a. Only conclusion II follows

b. None of the above

c. Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

d. Both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

e. Only conclusion I follows

Answer: a

Solution:

Following figure can be formed:

As, all leaves are plants and no plants are seeds then leaves cannot be part of seeds. So, statement I is not possible.

From the figure, only conclusion II follows

Hence, option a.

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Question 4: In the question below are given three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

No box is bowl.

All bowls are cups.

Each cup is glass.

Conclusions:

I: All bowls are glasses.

II: Some cups are boxes.

a. Only conclusion I follows

b. Only conclusion II follows

c. Either conclusion I or II follows

d. Both conclusions I and II follow

e. Neither conclusion I nor II follows

Answer: a

Solution:

The figure deduced from the statements,

Or

Therefore, only conclusion I follows.

Hence, option a.

Question 5: In the question below there are four statements followed by three conclusions I, II and III. You have to take the three given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the four statements disregarding commonly known facts.

Statements:

All watches are clocks.

Only clocks are mirrors.

Few clocks are walls.

No walls are glasses.

Conclusions:

I. Few mirrors may be watches

II. Mostly walls being watches is a possibility

III. Some clocks are glasses.

a) Only conclusion II follows

b) Only conclusion III follows

c) Only conclusion I follows

d) Both conclusion I and III follow.

e) None of these

Answer: a

Solution:

Following figure can be formed:

Or

Only clocks are mirrors means than nothing can be part of mirror except clocks.

From the figure, only conclusion II follows.

Hence, option a.

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Wishing you Good Luck for your preparation!

 

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  1. Karan Kumar Kisku

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