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We have come up with the difficult words of The Hindu’s editorial today which discusses the water crisis in Chennai. Check-out the usage of words like zero out, trade deficit etc. and enrich your vocabulary. Have a look at the words and their usage:

A city gone dry: on Chennai water crisis

The water crisis in Chennai needs holistic and widely resonant solutions

Chennai’s aspirations to grow into a global economic hub appear considerably weakened as it struggles to find water. The shadow of drought from 2018 has stretched into the torrid (very hot; बहुत गर्म ) summer this year, evaporating not just the city’s reservoirs (a large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply; पानी की आपूर्ति के स्रोत के रूप में इस्तेमाल की जाने वाली एक बड़ी प्राकृतिक या कृत्रिम झील ), but the prosperity of its residents who are forced to hunt for tankers, pay bribes and spend hours even at night waiting for trucks to dispense some water. Ironically, Tamil Nadu’s capital, which in a normal year gets anything between 1,300 mm and 1,400 mm of rainfall, has been laid low ( to cause to fall; नीचे गिराना ) by the indifference of successive governments. That residents are now given minimum piped water and meagre (lacking in quantity; मात्रा में कमी ) tanker supplies totalling a third of the installed capacity of 1,494 million litres a day, that too mainly from desalination (the process of removing salt from seawater; समुद्री जल से नमक निकालने की प्रक्रिया ) plants, faraway (lying at a great distance away; बहुत दूर स्थित ) lakes and farm wells, is proof of the neglect of water governance. Yet, even searching questions posed by the Madras High Court to the AIADMK government have elicited (to obtain information; जानकारी प्राप्त करना ) only vague (unclear; अस्पष्ट ) assurances on meeting basic requirements and restoring 210 waterbodies to augment future storage, rather than a firm timeline. Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami was wrong to dismiss reports on water scarcity as “an exaggeration”, and he must end this business-as-usual (an ongoing and unchanging state of affairs despite difficulties or disturbances; कठिनाइयों या गड़बड़ी के बावजूद मामलों में एक निरंतर और अपरिवर्तित स्थिति) approach. A time-bound plan is needed to augment the resources in the Greater Chennai region encompassing (to include several different things; अलग-अलग वस्तुओं को शामिल करना ) the neighbouring districts of Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram. This plan should be tasked to a Special Officer, to be framed by officials in consultation with credentialed experts in research and academia, and public comments invited before it is finalised.

Given the large base of tanks and reservoirs in Greater Chennai — over 4,000 waterbodies of significance — prudent rainfall management can help it through withering (scorching; झुलसते हुए ) summers and weak monsoons. A white paper with a full assessment of these wetlands and their storage potential should be a priority for the State’s Sustainable Water Security Mission. Deepening storage in the four major reservoirs must get priority. Such a project must quantify the increase in storage and set an early deadline of a year. These measures can harvest the bulk of the rain in a good year, and prove superior to the fire-fighting (the practice of dealing with problems as they arise rather than planning strategically to avoid them; रणनीतिक योजना बनाने के स्थान पर समस्याओं से निपटने का अभ्यास करना ) approach of installing expensive desalination plants and bringing small quantities by rail from another district. Tamil Nadu made rainwater harvesting mandatory quite early, but failed to follow it up with an institutional mechanism to help citizens implement it. The government should give monetary incentives to NGOs, as NITI Aayog proposed in its Water Index report, to encourage them to install systems and show quantifiable recharge outcomes. On the consumer side, devices and practices to reduce wastage should be promoted, especially on commercial premises. Droughts are bottlenecks (something impeding the flow; प्रवाह को बाधित करने वाला कुछ ) for profit, and several actors have developed a vested interest in transferring water to the city at high cost. Long-term solutions can end this cycle.

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